One of the reasons Indian Ocean trade took off is that there were a wide range of resources available and a wide range of import needs — from ivory to timber to books to grain. But the most important thing was the wind. The Indian Ocean is home to a set of very special winds called Monsoons.
What started the Indian Ocean trade?
The Indian Ocean Trade began with small trading settlements around 800 A.D., and declined in the 1500’s when Portugal invaded and tried to run the trade for its own profit. As trade intensified between Africa and Asia, prosperous city-states flourished along the eastern coast of Africa.
Who started the Indian Ocean trade route?
The Portuguese under Vasco da Gama discovered a naval route to the Indian Ocean through the southern tip of Africa in 1497–98. Initially, the Portuguese were mainly active in Calicut, but the northern region of Gujarat was even more important for trade, and an essential intermediary in east–west trade.
What were the causes of expanded exchange in the Indian Ocean?
Improved commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing trade routes—including the Silk Roads, trans-Saharan trade network, and Indian Ocean—promoting the growth of powerful new trading cities. The Indian Ocean trading network fostered the growth of states.
Why is the Indian Ocean important?
The importance of trade and the sheer scope of its many subregions make the Indian Ocean critical in terms of military and strategic engagement. It is a vital trading hub, connecting the Middle East to Southeast and East Asia, as well as Europe and the Americas.
How did the Portuguese impact Indian Ocean trade?
In conclusion, the Portuguese transformed and influenced the maritime trade system in the Indian Ocean by force. They took over trading cities, destroyed Muslim trade ships, and imposed taxes to get their way. Now the Portuguese are dominant in the region and are very wealthy.
What was China’s role in Indian Ocean trade?
China’s expansion in the Indian Ocean calls for European engagement. The Indian Ocean is a critical link in global trade routes, with 80 percent of global seaborne trade passing through it. … Eighty percent of China’s oil imports come through the Malacca Strait, the Indian Ocean’s busiest “chokepoint”.
Why did Ceylon become such an important location for Indian Ocean trade?
Strategic situation. The island of Ceylon was strategically important, since it commanded the Indian Ocean. Thus it controlled access to India, the vital Allied shipping routes to the Middle East and the oilfields of the Persian Gulf. Ceylon held most of the British Empire’s resources of rubber.
What was maritime trade in India?
By 1200 commodities of the maritime trade were mainly carried in two types of vessel, evolved at the eastern and western ends of the trade, and plying almost exclusively within their particular sectors, the dhow and the junk.
Which countries connect with Indian Ocean?
The Indian Ocean is bounded by Iran, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh to the north; the Malay Peninsula, the Sunda Islands of Indonesia, and Australia to the east; the Southern Ocean to the south; and Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to the west.
Did the Romans trade with India?
Roman trade with India is documented by numerous finds of Roman coins along the Indian coast and by other objects along the overland routes. For the Romans, spices may well have been even more important than silk, and the major source of the spices was South and Southeast Asia.
What are the networks of exchange?
Unit 2: Networks of Exchange (c. 1200-1450):
Expansion of Communication/Exchange Networks A deepening and widening of networks of human interaction within and across regions contributed to cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies.
What did the Portuguese trade for spices?
The main product brought back to Lisbon was black pepper. Pipernigrum was as valuable as gold in the age of discovery. In the 16th century, over half of Portugal’s state revenue came from West African gold and Indian pepper and other spices. The proportion of the spices greatly outweighed the gold.
Why was salt important in Mali?
Since salt was abundant in the North of Mali, but scarce in the South, they would have to import it. Salt was mainly used to preserve foods, like meat, but also corpses, etc. Malians would also need salt in their food, since they wouldn’t normally have much in their diet.
Who controlled the spice trade?
Under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral, a Portuguese expedition was the first to bring spices from India to Europe by way of the Cape of Good Hope in 1501. Portugal went on to dominate the naval trading routes through much of the 16th century.